It seems very likely that some sort of mining went on in Treboeth during 14th and 15th century; also small farmsteads were dotted around Treboeth.
When the Industrial Revolution began towards the end of the 18th century, mines and works were established in the Brynhyfryd, Treboeth, Mynyddbach, Llangyfelach and Penlan. There were literally dozens of small pits, for example, in 1768 the Pentre Colliery had 78 tonnes of tramway underground. In 1885 a shaft was opened at the site of St. Peter’s Church, Cwmlevel, which eventually extended via Tirdeunaw to Cefn Cadle Colliery.
Significant pits in the area included Cwm, Pentre and Calland's near Brynhyfryd, Ladysmith at Cwmgelli, Mynydd Newydd at Penlan, and Tirdonkin and Cefngyfelach near Llangyfelach. Many of these pits were first dug in the eighteenth century, and had been worked out by the 1930’s.
Treboeth like Cockett and Fforestfach became colliery villages. There were working coal mines in the area up to the early part of the 19th century.
Cwmgelli Colliery – Lady Smith
The mouth of the level colliery was at the top end of the Cwmgelly Valley and worked the five feet seam. It was opened by Sir John Morris (1745–1818). There was a tram road down the valley to the canal at Landore.
Sir John Morris also opened the Cwm Level colliery, which worked the five feet seam ultimately connecting up to the Treboeth Level colliery under Tirdeunaw.
The remains of Treboeth Level Colliery - Photographs taken 12th December 1999.
The Cwmgelly Colliery worked an area of coal towards the old workings of the Trewyddfa Pit. The colliery was connected by a tram road to a coal yard, 200 yards from Cwm Level Square and from there the coal was hauled away in horse drawn carts and wagons to the works at Landore. The colliery worked regular until 1918.
6th December 1834 inquest at Treboeth, Llangyfelach John Williams aged 16 killed in roof fall at Treboeth Colliery
4th May 1839 William Morgan injured in a gunpowder explosion at Treboeth
21st April 1848 Disaster and accidents, other accidents. William Matthews killed in accident at the tunnel – inquest in Treboeth.
25th February 1853 - Disaster and accidents, accidents, mining accidents. John Matthews, 49, died after a stone fell on him at Cwmlevel Colliery. Inquest at Treboeth
30th October 1874 Mining accidents. James Rogers, accidental death at coal pit, Ty Canol Colliery, Quarry at Treboeth.
4th June 1904 Mining accidents. Inquest at Brynhyfryd on John Robert John, 19 killed at Cwmgelly Colliery, Treboeth. Mr. Robson mine inspector attended.
Heol Ddu refers to the Black Road which took the miners to either, Mynyddnewydd, Penlan or Tirdwncyn Collieries.To be Continued.